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Table of Contents
SHORT COMMUNICATION
Year : 2018  |  Volume : 4  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 63-66

Study of morbidity pattern in readymade denim factory workers in suburban slum of Maharashtra: A cross-sectional overview


1 Department of Community & Family Medicine, AIIMS, Raipur, India
2 Department of Community & Family Medicine, AIIMS, Bhopal, India
3 Department of Community Medicine, Grant Govt Medical College, Mumbai, India

Date of Submission18-Dec-2018
Date of Acceptance30-Dec-2018
Date of Web Publication4-Feb-2019

Correspondence Address:
Sunil Kumar Panigrahi
Flat no 1 B, Block 5, Singapore city, Mohaba Bazar, Raipur
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2395-2113.251443

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  Abstract 


Introduction: Clothes form indispensible trade in modern society & jeans clothes are among the clothes with highest demand among youth. Most of the times the jeans fabrics are made in some industries and then they are transported to different small scale industries to make readymade clothes. Mostly these small scale industries consist of small labour force mostly involved in cutting & making of readymade jeans clothes. Most of these industries are unorganised sectors. This study intends to assess morbidity patterns workers in one of such industries invoved in cutting & making of readymade jeans clothes. Objective: To assess the morbidity pattern among the workers. Material & Methods: It is a crossectional study conducted in one of the small factory producing readymade jeans clothes. The total number of workers included was 256. The objective of the study was to assess the morbidity among the workers. The study tool used was a pre validated &pretested questionnaire, which included their demographic characteristics, general & systemic examination. Results: Among all the 256 workers in the factories, highest number i.e. 136 (53.13%) were in 20-30 year age group followed by 68(26.56%) in 30-40 year age group, 24(9.38%) each in 10-20 years & 40-50 years age group and only 4(1.56%) were in 50-60 years of age group. All of them were males. Conclusion: The health needs of the people working in these industries are high due to significant co morbidities, long working hours, lack of health awareness regarding substance abuse and safe sexual practice.

Keywords: Morbidity, Denim Factory workers, Suburban slum


How to cite this article:
Panigrahi SK, Satpathy P, Singh V, Akarte SV. Study of morbidity pattern in readymade denim factory workers in suburban slum of Maharashtra: A cross-sectional overview. Indian J Community Fam Med 2018;4:63-6

How to cite this URL:
Panigrahi SK, Satpathy P, Singh V, Akarte SV. Study of morbidity pattern in readymade denim factory workers in suburban slum of Maharashtra: A cross-sectional overview. Indian J Community Fam Med [serial online] 2018 [cited 2019 Sep 17];4:63-6. Available from: http://www.ijcfm.org/text.asp?2018/4/2/63/251443




  Introduction Top


India is the 2nd largest manufacture of textile globally. The textile industry constitutes 14% of the industrial production of textile all over the world. 4% of the national GDP depends on the textile sector only. The textile industry employs around 45 million of the people.[1] The people are not only employed in the primary textile industries but also work in various ancillary industries like readymade garment factories. One of the ancillary industry is denim industry, the global market of which forecast to reach 64.1 billion dollar by the year 2020. Despite slowdown the Indian denim industry has consistently delivered CAGR of 15%- 18% per year over many years. The increased demand in denim industry has over the years attracted many workers in readymade denim industry in various metropolises in India including Mumbai. The ancillary denim industries are mostly involved in sewing making denim pants and shirts. Most of the factories are in unorganised sector.

Their workers are temporary workers, mostly work under fixed payment basis. They do not enjoy any of the benefits, which are provided to organised factory workers.[1]

More than 80 percent of the world’s workforce that resides in the developing world disproportionately shares in the global burden of occupational disease and injury.[2] Keeping in view of the ever expanding demand for ancillary textile industries and the employment opportunity it generates in future, this study intends to assess the health needs of the workers involved in these industries.


  Material & Methods Top


The study was a cross sectional study done among the workers of two ancillary jeans industry, which were selected conveniently in Thane district of Maharashtra. The workers who had worked for at least 6 months were included in the study. The total number of workers included was 256. The objective of the study was to assess the morbidity among the workers. The study tool used was a pre validated &pretested questionnaire, which included their demographic characteristics, general & systemic examination.
Table 1: Demographic characteristics of the workers in jeans factory:

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  Results Top


Among all the 256 workers in the factories, highest number i.e. 136 (53.13%) were in 20-30 year age group followed by 68(26.56%) in 30-40 year age group, 24(9.38%) each in 10-20 years & 40-50 years age group and only 4(1.56%) were in 50-60 years of age group. All of them were males.
Figure 1: Morbidity patterns observed among all the workers in the factory (N=256):

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Table 2: Anthropometry of All workers in the factory (N=256)

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Table 3: Behaviours affecting health of the workers:

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Table 4: Association of various factors and morbidities: (p value)

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Table 5: Association of various factors with demography & health related behaviours: (P values)

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There was a significant difference in proportion of condom use among the workers who are involved with extra/premarital sexual relationship (p value 0.04). Only 32 (36.78%) of the workers among those involved in extra/premarital sexual relationships (87) use condom during sexual intercourse compared to 84(49.01%) of those workers, who were not involved in extra/premarital relations. Alcoholism among the workers remains an important determining factor for condom use. Among the non-alcoholics (N=76) the workers involved in extra/pre-marital affairs do not have significant difference in proportion of condom use from those without extra/premarital affairs (p value 0.57). But among alcoholics the condom use among those involved in extra/pre-marital sexual relations i.e 19(37.25%) was significantly lower than those not involved in extra/premarital relationships i.e 72(55.81%) (p value 0.02).


  Discussion Top


Among all the workers, 84 (32.5%) were having BMI more than 23. The mean WC:HC (Waist circumference: Hip circumference) was also higher than normal. Ravichandran et al in 2018 concluded 27.6% were overweight and only 2.1% were found to be obese.[3] Study done by Joseph et al in Karnataka where 11.8% and 2.9% were overweight and obese respectively.[4]

Among all the morbidity identified, eye complaint (192) were most common followed by conductive deafness (132) and ear, nose, throat complaint (32). The most common lesion identified during examination was the oral lesion among 163 workers. Ravichandran et al in 2018 concluded The common problems experienced by the workers during the last one year in the present study were musculoskeletal problems (77.6%), anaemia (57.1%) visual problems (51.6%) followed by symptoms of respiratory problems (31.3%).[3] Saha et al in Kolkata reported that musculoskeletal problems were the commonest health problem (69.64%) followed by sleep disturbances, gastrointestinal problems and malnutrition.[5] Dr Yerpude et al in 2010 concluded, the common morbid conditions found were eosinophilia (18.35%), iron deficiency anemia (28.90%), byssinosis grade 1 (7.80%), dental stains (6.54%), refractive errors (7.80%), chronic bronchitis (4.85%), and upper respiratory tract infection (8.64%).[6] Mehta et al in 2012 concluded that, the nature of work in Garment factories created various types of health hazards among the selected respondents such as headache, musculoskeletal pain, eye strain etc.[7] Only 18 (7.03%) of the workers were using condom regularly. 71.88% of the workers were tobacco chewers. 43.75% were smokers and 29.9% of the workers were alcoholics.

The oral lesions among the workers were significantly associated with more than 30 years of age, Aloholism, tobacco chewing and smoking of the individuals.

The Body mass index was associated significantly with more than 30 years of age, smoking and more than 10 years of working. The waist hip ratio of the workers were significantly associated with more than 30 age, alcoholism, tobacco chewing working hours more than 12 hours per day. The neck pain and lower back pain were significantly associated with more than 30 years age, alcoholism, tobacco chewing and working years more than 10 years. The skin lesion was associated significantly with people working more than 12 hours a day.

The pattern of irregular condom use was significantly associated extra marital/pre marital sexual relations (p value 0.04) and was significantly high among peoples with less than 30 years of age, and more than 12 years of working.


  Conclusion Top


The small scale jeans industry contributes significant part of unorganised labour force in western part of our country (Maharashtra, Gujarat etc), which are devoid of many basic facilities, those are available in an organised industry. The health needs of the people working in these industries are high due to significant comorbidities, long working hours and lack of health awareness regarding substance abuse and safe sexual practice.



 
  References Top

1.
An overview of the Global and Indian Denim Market. [cited 2018 Feb 26]; Available from: http://www.indiantextilemagazine.in/denim-industry/an-overview-of-the-global-and-indian-denim-market/  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Rosenstock L, Cullen M, Fingerhut M. Occupational Health [Internet]. Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries. 2006 [cited 2018 Dec 27]. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21250328  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Ravichandran SP, Shah PB. Health problems and risk factors prevailing among garment workers in Tirupur, Tamil Nadu. Indian J Community Med Public Heal. 2018;5(6):2400-5.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Joseph B. Pakistan journal of medical sciences quarterly. A Stitch Time. Annu Heal Apprais Garment Ind Employees [Internet]. Professional Medical Publications; 2008 [cited 2018 Dec 27]; Available from: https://www.pjms.com.pk/issues/janmar08/article/article21.html  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Saha TK, Dasgupta A, Butt A, Chattopadhyay O. Health Status of Workers Engaged in the Small-scale Garment Industry: How Healthy are They? Indian J Community Med [Internet]. Wolters Kluwer -- Medknow Publications; 2010 Jan [cited 2018 Dec 27];35(1):179-82. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20606949  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Yerpude PN, Jogdand KS. Morbidity profile of cotton mill workers. Indian J Occup Environ Med [Internet]. Medknow Publications and Media Pvt. Ltd.; 2010 Sep [cited 2018 Dec 27];14(3):94-6. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21461162  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Mehta R. Major Health Risk Factors prevailing in Garment Manufacturing Units of Jaipur. J Ergon [Internet]. OMICS International; 2012 Feb 13 [cited 2018 Dec 27];02(02):1-4. Available from: https://www.omicsonline.org/open-access/major-health-risk-factors-prevailing-in-garment-manufacturing-units-of-jaipur-2165-7556.1000102.php?aid=5620  Back to cited text no. 7
    


    Figures

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    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5]



 

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